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The Beheading of Jón Arason

Updated: May 27, 2020

On this day, 07 Nov 1550, the last Catholic Bishop in Iceland and an important figure in Icelandic history was beheaded because of his opposition to Lutheranism and the control from Denmark’s King Christian III.

Jón was born in 1484 at a farm south of Akureyri called Gryta. He was educated at nearby Munkaþverá (monastery). At this location was the Benedictine Abbey of Iceland. There is this statue at this location.

Jón Arason Munkþvera

Jón was ordained a Catholic priest in about 1504 and was sent on two missions to Norway. In 1522, he became the episcopal see of Hólar. Bishop Jón struggled against Denmark and the Reformation until he and his two sons were killed on this day. He is an ancestor to many Icelanders alive today and my 11th Great Grandfather.

Our ancestor, Jón, was known for many exceptional talents including the composition of poetry. He had at least six children with Helga Sigurðardóttir. The Catholic Church was dissatisfied with Jón’s faith because he ignored the rule to be celibate. However, many Icelandic priests and bishops through the years ignored this church law and because Iceland was so far away from Rome, not much was done to prevent this practice.

Lutheran Reformation began slowly in Iceland. Icelanders studying in Denmark and Germany brought these new ideas home with them. Martin Luther had posted his Ninety-Five Theses on 31 Oct 1517 in Wittenberg, Germany. During the 1520s, there was a German merchant community at Hafnarfjörður where the first Lutheran Church was built but the Alþingi passed a resolution pledging allegiance to the King of Norway and vowing to keep their Holy Faith (Catholic). The country’s two bishops, Ögmundur Pálsson of Skálholt and Jón Arason of Hólar signed that decree.

King Christian III of Denmark began imposing Lutheranism on all the held lands and ordered Icelanders to change their religion, too. In 1538, both bishops Ögmundur and Jón rebelled against the decree.

By 1541, they had agreed to pay taxes to Denmark as long as they were allowed to keep the Icelandic laws and customs. Unfortunately, shortly afterwards, Bishop Ögmundur, who was old and blind, was taken prisoner to Denmark, where he died in 1542.

Bishop Jón’s unrelenting opposition is thought to have come from Icelandic nationalism, Catholic faith, and also his personal desire to retain control. He resented changing religions and believed that Iceland should remain Catholic. Pope Paul III sent a letter of support that urged Jón to continue to be a champion for the Catholic religion in Iceland.

In February 1549 the Danish King sent a letter to the Icelandic people saying that Bishop Jón was to be considered an outlaw and he was not obeying the King’s orders so they should not help him or obey him. Skálholt was reformed in 1549 but many lives were lost in the civil war that ensued.

In the summer of 1549, Jón, his two sons, Björn and Ari, and a large group of men captured Marteinn Einarsson beneath Snæfellsjökull. He was the Lutheran Bishop appointed by the King of Denmark. Legend tells us that Ari did not want to take forceful action but his mother presented a woman’s skirt to Ari, which was a traditional custom of shaming a man.

The next summer in 1550, Jón with 200 men and his two sons each with 100 men rode to the Alþingi to fight against Lutheranism. In October 1550, Jón made another action against his last big enemy in Iceland, Daði Guðmundsson, but he took less than 100 men including his two sons. Historians say he had few men because he was confident of success. Daði’s estate was at Sauðafell and Ari had already claimed this land. During